In recent years, wind power has been like a "cyclone". From the southeast coast to the northern inland, wind farms have risen from the southeast coast to the north inland. The development speed is at the top of the renewable energy, and it has begun to move from "supplementary energy" to "strategic alternative energy." . As of June 2012, my country's grid-connected wind power reached 52.58 million kilowatts, which has replaced the United States as the world's largest wind power country.
However, behind this blowout development, the hidden worries of the wind power industry have gradually emerged. The main driving force for the development of the domestic wind power market is political will and mandatory market share policies, but the power generation is ignored. Currently, subject to grid connection and consumption issues, wind power "abandonment" is serious. On the 15th of this month, the State Grid proposed at a press conference to promote the development of new energy that it will build a nationwide large power grid based on the principle of first in the province, then in the region and then in the country, around the nine major wind power bases that will be built during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" To promote wind power consumption.
Foresight Industry Research Institute wind power industry researcher He Chongyang believes that wind power as an intermittent power source, large-scale wind power development is bound to be limited by the grid's ability to absorb random electricity. The efficient utilization of large-scale wind power has become a worldwide problem.
my country's wind farms are mainly distributed in areas far away from the load center. The grid structure is relatively weak, and the construction of the grid has certain restrictions on the development of wind power. In the current "Three Norths" (Northwest, North China, and Northeast) my country's wind power bases are concentrated, the electricity generated by wind power cannot be connected to the grid normally, which has become the biggest problem facing the development of wind power in the future. On the surface, the construction period of wind farms is short, while grid construction is relatively complicated, and it is difficult to complete synchronously. The rapid development of wind power highlights this difference, which brings about problems such as wind curtailment and wind power consumption difficulties.
From the perspective of international experience, countries such as Europe and Denmark rely on the support of strong transnational interconnected grids to effectively expand the wind power balance area and improve the level of wind power utilization. For example, the Danish transnational exchange transmission capacity is 5 million kilowatts, and the maximum load is about 6.3 million kilowatts. The transnational exchange transmission capacity accounts for 80% of the maximum load.
If China wants to realize the long-term plan for wind power development, it mainly relies on the "Three North" wind power base to achieve it. Without the "Three Norths" area, the development goals of wind power cannot be achieved. The construction of a transmission line from the "Three Norths" area to the "Three Chinas" (North China, East China and Central China) areas, on the one hand, can realize the large-scale connection of wind power in the "Three Norths" region and help wind power consumption; On the one hand, it is possible to use the flexible power supply in the "Three-Hua" market to improve the utilization efficiency of wind power in the "Three North" area, so as to control the "wind curtailment" of wind power within 5%, which is more than 20% higher than the current wind power utilization rate. .
At the same time, in terms of the overall technological research and development level of my country's wind power industry, regardless of the number of institutions, the number of employees and the quality level, there is a big gap with the international advanced level, and it urgently needs to be further improved and improved.
The rapid start of the wind power industry has exceeded expectations. While the production capacity and the number of enterprises have expanded in a short period of time, there has been a trend of homogenized competition and "emphasis on quantity expansion and light industrial upgrading". More than 80 complete machine manufacturers have appeared in the industry, and the expected production capacity has greatly exceeded the actual market demand.
As early as the second half of 2009, the State Council issued a document on controlling overcapacity, which warned about this and also put forward relevant requirements. That is, in order to regulate the emerging industry of wind power, the construction of the standard system must be strengthened, and enterprises must be guided and required to start independent innovation, Focus on quality and service, and continue to promote the improvement of wind power economy and product reliability.
He Chongyang believes that during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, the development of my country's wind power industry will shift from focusing on production capacity and market expansion and other entrepreneurial goals to focusing on further product upgrades as the main task, emphasizing continuous independent innovation, improving product quality, and strengthening Product reliability and other aspects. As the wind power industry realizes the transition from rapid development to healthy development, its prospects are very impressive.
According to the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan for Wind Power Development" recently released, by 2015, my country's cumulative grid-connected wind power installed capacity will reach 100 million kilowatts, and the annual power generation will exceed 190 billion kilowatt-hours, of which offshore wind power installed capacity will reach 5 million kilowatts, which is basically formed A complete and internationally competitive wind power equipment manufacturing industry.
The wind power industry research team of the Foresight Industry Research Institute pointed out that during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, offshore wind power development will become the highlight of my country's wind power development.
At present, offshore wind power, like onshore wind power, encounters grid connection problems, and its difficulty is even much higher than that of onshore wind power. However, compared with onshore wind power, offshore wind power also has the advantages of less negative impact on the environment, more stable wind speed, wider space, and more large-scale wind turbines. At the same time, my country's offshore wind power resources are mostly concentrated in the southeast coast. In the region, close to large and medium-sized cities with dense populations and huge demand for electricity, the development of offshore wind farms will effectively realize the short-distance consumption of this part of the electricity, and to a certain extent alleviate the tightness of the wind power industry.
As far as the world is concerned, there is no independent set of design methods and standards for offshore wind turbines. Since wind power is an emerging field, any new wind power technology has corresponding patent protection, and the technical confidentiality is very strict. The key technology or core technology cannot be obtained through the technology introduction through the license, and the current limited This is especially true for offshore wind power technology. The large-scale development of offshore wind power is unimaginable without technical support. The risks are huge. This requires more stable development and requires the government to have specific and operable policies to ensure and promote. To promote the long-term and healthy development of the industry, on the one hand, we must ensure the continuous continuity of policies, and on the other side, we must continue to improve the industrial development policy in terms of project investment, power purchase, and finance.
The wind power industry research group of the Foresight Industry Research Institute predicts that during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, the plan to install 5 million kilowatts of offshore wind power will bring about 80 billion yuan of offshore wind power cakes. In the next 5 years, my country's offshore wind power will enter a period of accelerated development. After 2015, my country's offshore wind power will enter the stage of large-scale development and reach the international advanced technology level.